Foot & Ankle

Foot & Ankle Providers

Non-surgical Foot & Ankle Providers

Foot & Ankle Anatomy

The foot and ankle is a complex joint involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot and ankle consists of 26 bones, 33 joints, and many muscles, tendons and ligaments.

Bones of the Ankle

The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot, and is composed of three bones: tibia, fibula and talus. The tibia or shin bone and fibula or calf bone are bones of the lower leg which articulate with the talus or ankle bone, enabling up and down movement of the foot.

Three bony bumps present on the ends of the tibia and fibula form parts of the ankle joint:

  • The Medial malleolus, formed by the tibia, is found on the inside of the ankle;
  • Posterior malleolus, also formed by the tibia, is found at the back of the ankle and the
  • Lateral malleolus, formed by the fibula, is found on the outer aspect of the ankle

Bones of the Feet

The foot acts as a single functional unit, but can be divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot.

The hindfoot forms the ankle and heel and is made up of the talus bone and calcaneous or heel bone. The heel bone is the largest bone in the foot.

The midfoot connects the hindfoot to the forefoot, and consists of one navicular bone, one cuboid bone, and three cuneiform bones. The navicular bone is found in front of the heel bone, and the cuneiform and cuboid bones are arranged in front of the navicular bone.

These bones are connected to five metatarsal bones of the forefoot, which form the arch of the foot for shock absorption while walking or running. The forefoot is also made up of the toes or digits, formed by phalanges, three in each toe, except the big toe, which has only two phalanges. The big two has two additional tiny round sesamoid bones in the ball of the foot, which help in upward and downward movement of the toe.

Ankle and Foot Joints

There are 33 joints in the ankle and foot. They include the

  • Hinge joints in the ankle, which allow flexion (bending) and extension
  • Gliding joints found in the hindfoot, which allow gliding movements
  • Condyloid joints found in the forefoot and toes, which allow the flexion (bending) and extension, adduction and abduction (sideward movement).

The joints of the foot and ankle provide stability and support the weight of the body, helping you to walk or run, and to adapt to uneven ground.

The joint surface of all bones of the ankle and foot are lined by a thin, tough, flexible, and slippery surface called articular cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber and cushion to reduce friction between the bones. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid, which further enables smooth movement of the bones.

Soft Tissues of the Ankle and Foot

Our feet and ankle bones are held in place and supported by various soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons and bursae.

Cartilage is the flexible, shiny, smooth tissue on the ends of bones that meet to form a joint.  Cartilage provides cushioning between the bones allowing smooth movement. 

Ligaments are tough rope-like tissue that connect bones to other bones, and holds them in place providing stability to the joints. The Plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the foot, originating from the heel bone to the forefoot, it extends along the bottom surface of the foot and is involved in maintaining the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot. Lateral ligaments on the outside of the foot and medial ligaments on the inside of the foot provide stability and allow up and down movement of the foot.

The foot is made up of 20 muscles, which help in movement. The main muscles include:

  • Anterior tibial muscle: allows up and down movement of the foot
  • Posterior tibial muscle: supports the arch
  • Peroneal tibial muscle: controls movement on the outside of the ankle
  • Extensors: enable the ankle to raise the toes just before stepping forward
  • Flexors: stabilize the toes against the floor

Smaller muscles are also present to help the toes lift and curl.

Tendons are soft tissues that connect muscles to bones. The largest and strongest tendon in the foot is the Achilles tendon, present at the back of the lower leg around the heel bone. Other tendons include peroneals and anterior and posterior tibialis.

Bursae

Bursae are small fluid filled sacs that decrease friction between tendons and bone or skin. Bursae contain special cells called synovial cells that secrete a lubricating fluid.

Conditions

  • Ankle Sprain

    Ankle Sprain

    A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly...

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  • Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump...

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  • Plantar Fasciitis

    Plantar Fasciitis

    Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that lies at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot...

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  • Ankle Fractures

     Ankle Fractures

    The ankle joint is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus which are articulated together. The ends of the fibula and tibia (lower leg bones) form the inner and outer malleolus...

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  • Ankle Instability

    Ankle Instability

    Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by a recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. It usually results from repeated ankle sprains. It is generally noticed during movement of the ankle joint but can also occur during standing as well.

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  • Nail Bed Injuries

    Nail Bed Injuries

    Various supporting structures aid in the smooth movement of the shoulder joint. The joint is held together...

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  • Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle

    The ankle joint is an articulation of the end of the tibia and fibula (shin bones) with the talus (heel bone). Osteochondral injuries, also called osteochondritis dissecans, are injuries to the talus ...

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  • Stress Fracture of the Foot

    Stress Fracture of the Foot

    A stress fracture is a small crack in the bone which occurs from overuse injury. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked...

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  • Shin Splints

    Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shin bone due to inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue. It occurs because of vigorous physical activity such as with exercise or sports.

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  • Heel Fractures

    The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found at the rear of the foot. A fracture is a break in a bone from trauma or various disease conditions. The types of fracture to the calcaneus...

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  • Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture

    Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture

    The Lisfranc joint or tarsometatarsal joint refers to the region in the middle of the foot. It is a junction between the tarsal bones (seven bones in the foot arch) and metatarsal bones (five long bones in the foot)...

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  • Talus Fractures

    Talus Fractures

    The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the shin bones, enabling the up and down movement of the foot. Fractures in the talus bone may occur due to a fall from...

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  • Toe & Forefoot Fractures

    Toe and Forefoot Fractures

    The forefoot is the front of the foot that includes the toes. Fractures occurring in this part of the foot are painful, but very often not disabling. There are 2 types of fractures namely, traumatic fracture...

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  • Turf Toe

    Turf Toe

    Turf toe is an injury to the ligament at the base of the big toe. It is a painful condition which usually results from jamming of the toe into the ground or excessive backward bending of the toe...

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  • Foot Fracture

    The hind foot is separated from the midfoot by the medio tarsal joint and the midfoot is separated from the forefoot by the lisfranc joint. Muscles, tendons and ligaments support the bones and joints of the feet enabling them to withstand the entire body’s weight while walking, running and jumping.

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  • Foot and Ankle Trauma

    The foot and ankle in the human body work together to provide balance, stability, movement, and propulsion.

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  • Ankle Ligament Injury

    Ankle Ligament Injury

    Ankle ligament injury, also known as ankle sprain, can be caused by a sudden twisting movement of the foot during any athletic event or during daily activities. It is one of the most common orthopaedic...

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  • Ankle Injury

    Osteochondral injuries are one of the most common causes of ankle pain. Though in most cases there is a history of injury or trauma to the ankle joint, a few cases may not have any previous history of ankle injury.

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  • Achilles Tendon Bursitis

    Achilles Tendon Bursitis

    Achilles tendon bursitis or retrocalcaneal bursitis is a condition that commonly occurs in athletes. It is a painful condition caused by swelling of bursa, a fluid-filled sac which is located at the back...

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  • Bunion

    Bunion

    A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the external surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.

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  • Athlete's Foot

    Athlete's foot also known as tinea pedis, is a fungal infection on the skin of the foot. It is characterized by itchy, moist, white, scaly lesions between the toes that can spread to the sole of the foot.

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  • Forefoot Pain

    Forefoot Pain

    Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is a type of pain that occurs in the ball of the foot (around the tip of the metatarsal bones). Generally, forefoot pain is associated with aging...

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  • Intoeing

    Intoeing

    In toeing also called “pigeon-toed”, is an abnormal condition characterized by inward facing of the toe or feet instead of being straight. Parents may observe their children having intoeing at an early age...

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  • Morton's Neuroma

    Morton's Neuroma

    Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes, which causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue. Compression or chronic irritation of this interdigital...

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  • Foot Pain

    Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors in the foot. Foot pain is a common problem experienced by young athletes involved in different activities such as running and jumping.

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  • Flatfoot

    Flatfoot

    Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet in which the arch that runs lengthwise along the sole of the foot has collapsed to the ground or not formed at all...

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  • Fungal Nails

    Fungal Nails

    Fungal infections are common in nails, and occur most often in toe nails. Termed as onychomycosis, nail fungus affects the keratin, the hard material that makes up the nail and can include...

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  • Foot Infections

    Foot infections may occur after trauma to the foot or loss of tissue because of contamination from foreign material and/or bacteria or fungus. Infections can occur in healthy individuals as well as in those whose...

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  • Foot Drop

    Foot drop also known as drop foot, is a sign of an underlying muscular, neurological or anatomical condition, where you are unable to lift the front part of your foot, resulting in foot dragging...

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  • Hammertoe

    Hammertoe

    A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe gets bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against...

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  • Mallet Toe

    Mallet Toe

    Mallet finger is a condition where the end of the finger is bent and does not straighten. It occurs when the extensor tendon on the back of the finger is damaged. The finger joint is a hinge-joint...

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  • Claw Toe

    Claw Toe

    Claw toe is a deformity, where a toe bends and appears like a bird’s claw. The affected toe is bent upward from the joint at the ball of foot, and downward at the joints in the middle and tip...

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  • Limb Deformities

    Limb Deformities

    Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage because of fracture, infection, arthritis or tumor. Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental...

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  • Club foot and Congenital Deformity

    Club foot and Congenital Deformity

    Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs. Several factors such as genetics...

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  • Ingrown Toenail

    Ingrown Toenail

    An ingrown toenail is a common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the sides or corner of the nail grow inwards and penetrates the skin of the toe. Pain is often accompanied by swelling and redness...

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  • Corns

    Corns

    A corn is a circular area of thickened skin developed because of continuous friction or pressure. They usually develop on the soles of feet, or on the top or sides of toes, and appear as yellowish dead tissue surrounding an area of tenderness...

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  • Heel Pain

    Heel Pain

    The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together support the weight of the body and stress during movement...

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Procedures

Non-Surgical Treatments

  • Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy

    Our blood consists of a liquid component known as plasma. It also consists of three main solid components which include the red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets...

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  • Foot Care

    Feet support your body weight, help maintain proper posture and help in movement. As the feet bear the entire weight of the body and are involved in most activities, they are more prone to problems

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  • Foot Activity and Exercise Guide

     Foot Activity and Exercise Guide

    A foot injury or foot surgery may leave you immobile for a period. To return to your regular activities and more strenuous recreational activities, it is necessary for you to follow a well-planned activity and exercise program.

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Surgical Treatments

  • Bunion Surgery

    Bunion Surgery

    A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is bony prominence at the base of the big toe, which often results in pain, redness and rubbing in footwear. The 1st metatarsal bone...

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  • Foot Reconstruction

    Foot Reconstruction

    Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness...

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  • Ankle Joint Replacement

    The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and provides free movement to the foot. It is formed by connecting the bones of the lower leg, tibia and fibula, with the talus, or ankle bone.

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  • Subtalar Arthrodesis

    Subtalar arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint is a complex joint located below the ankle joint and is formed by the union...

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  • Ankle Arthroscopy

    Ankle Arthroscopy

    Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle...

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  • Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

     Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

    Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery (MIFS) uses the latest advanced technology to treat foot and ankle pain caused by a variety of conditions. Special surgical instruments, devices and advanced...

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  • Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

    Injuries during sports are common. They can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. Injuries to the foot and ankle...

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  • Cavovarus Foot Correction

     Cavovarus Foot Correction

    To support the entire body’s weight on your two feet, the inner middle portion of each foot (midfoot) is raised off the ground to form an arch. A cavovarus foot deformity is characterized...

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  • Flatfoot Reconstruction

    Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness.

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  • Ankle Arthrodesis

     Ankle Arthrodesis

    Ankle arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the ankle joint. The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, talus, and the fibula bones.

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  • Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

     Ankle Ligament Reconstruction

    A sprain is stretching or tearing of a ligament. Ligaments connect adjacent bones in a joint and provide stability to the joint.

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  • Ankle Tenotomy

     Ankle Tenotomy

    Ankle tenotomy is a surgical procedure to lengthen the Achilles tendon enabling the ankle to flex upward and allowing the heel to be placed flat on the floor. It is indicated in patients that have an abnormally

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  • Ankle Instability Surgery

    Ankle instability surgery is performed to treat an unstable ankle and involves the repair or replacement of a torn or stretched ligament.

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Foot & Ankle Videos

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